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     Design Qualities for Engaging Student Work:

    1. Content and Substance- Teachers and administrators have a clear and consistent understanding of what students are expected to know and be able to do, and there is general community consensus regarding these matters.

    2. Organization of Knowledge- The content presented is organized in ways that are most likely to appeal to the personal interest of the largest possible number of students.

    3. Product Focus- The tasks students are assigned and the activities students are encouraged to undertake are clearly linked in the minds of the teacher and the students to problems, issues, products, performances, and exhibitions about which the students care and upon which students place value.

    4. Clear and Compelling Product Standards- When problems, issues, products, performances, or exhibitions are a part of the instructional design, students understand the standards by which the results of their work will be evaluated.  Furthermore, they are committed to these standards, see them as fair, and see a real prospect of meeting these standards if they work diligently at tasks assigned or encouraged.

    5. Protection from Adverse Consequences for Initial Failures- Students are provided reasonable opportunities to try to complete a task without being penalized for initial failures associated with lack of knowledge and skills.  Instead, when failure occurs, the reasons for the failure are diagnosed by the student and the teacher, and new efforts are encouraged.

    6. Affirmation of the Significance of Performance- Persons who are significant in the lives of students, including parents, siblings, peers, public audiences, and younger students, are positioned to observer, participate in, and benefit from the student performances and to affirm the significance and importance of the activity being undertaken.

    7. Affiliation- Students are provided opportunities to work with others on problems, issues, products, performances, and exhibitions that are judged by them and others to be of significance.

    8. Novelty and Variety- The range of problems, issues, products, performances, and exhibitions is large and varied, and the technologies students are encouraged to employ are varied as well, moving form the most simple and well understood to the most complex.

    9. Choice- What students are to learn is usually not subject to negotiation, but students do have considerable choice of what they will do in order to learn what it is intended they learn.

    10. Authenticity- The tasks students are assigned and the work students are encouraged to undertake have meaning and significance in the present lives of students and are related to consequences to which students attach importance.