George Betts & Jolene Kercher


    TYPE I:  Successful

    Teacher pleasers- smart, alert, ready to please

    Sacrifice creativity and autonomy for conformity

    Score high on ability and achievement

    Identified gifted as a reward for the kind of student they are

    Need enhancement as learners, not as students


    TYPE II:  Challenging

    Non-conformers, rebels, don’t learn like the rest of their peers

    Fight the system; frustrated that teachers don’t meet their diverse needs

    Don’t reveal their creativity and autonomy; possibly more boys     

    Individuality is more important than conformity

    Many are not identified as gifted because of behavior and lack of control

    Suffer because of lack of success

    Need to learn self management and the ability to work within the system


    TYPE III: Underground

    Possibly more social girls in middle school

    Hide their creativity and intelligence because they want to belong.

    They don’t want to be gifted especially if their friends aren’t

    Boys begin this in elementary school.

    Need to understand self


    TYPE IV:  Dropout

    Dislike themselves, their teachers, and many times their parents

    Beyond bored and frustrated to resentful and angry

    Drop out of school early, drop out of life

    Attempt or commit suicide

    Can’t cope with pressures

    Need early intervention focusing on the whole person, not just intellectual


    TYPE V:  Twice Exceptional

    Learning disabled and gifted

    Hearing impaired and gifted

    Other disabilities and gifted

    Usually identified only for special education and not for gifted

     Work on strengths

    TYPE VI:  Autonomous Learner

    Comfortable as a student and a learner

    Don’t sacrifice creativity while developing intellectually

    Don’t sacrifice individuality for conformity

    Often identified